DIGITAL PAKISTAN MONITORING – May 2020

DIGITAL PAKISTAN MONITOR

A monthly report on trends relating to digital rights, policies, practices & media

Tracking: Internet and digital policies and regulations

Digitalization in governance and socio-economic domains

Digital rights violations and protections

Digital rights advocacy and defense

Digital media and online free speech

Vol. 1, No. 5 May 2020 Edition

Produced by Freedom Network – www.fnpk.org

SECTION 1: Internet and digital policies and regulations

  • Federal and provincial governments (ministries and departments)
  • Internet regulators
  • Media regulators
  • Telecom regulators
  • Internet access / connectivity

The uneven digital playing field

Date: May 1, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Students across the country are facing issues regarding internet connectivity and access facilities as educational institutes switch to online teaching due to pandemic restrictions.

The need for 5G connectivity in a post-pandemic world

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Restrictions during Covid-19 outbreak have given a boost to the need for a faster, efficient and ubiquitous mobile broadband, such as 5G connectivity.

Court raises jurisdictional concern on internet connectivity in tribal areas case

Date: May 12, 2020 – Source 1: Express Tribune, Source 2: Dawn

The Islamabad High Court has sought assistance regarding its jurisdiction in a case seeking revival of internet facility in the erstwhile Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

President for improved accessibility of internet in rural areas

Date: May 12, 2020 – Source: Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication

President Dr. Arif Alvi has directed the Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication to improve accessibility of internet facility in rural areas of Pakistan as well as to build innovative IT-based solutions and skills to meet current economic and technological challenges.

Ministry of Information Technology making efforts to promote digital exports

Date: May 14, 2020 – Source: Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication

On the direction of the Federal Minister for Information Technology and Telecommunication, the ministry is making special efforts to promote digital exports and encourage information technology companies.

Pakistanis use mobile phones for watching television

Date: May 22, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

A majority of Pakistanis use mobile handsets for watching television in Ramazan due to increasing penetration of broadband internet connectivity by mobile phone operators across the country.

SECTION 2: Digital rights advocacy and defense

  • Pakistan-based citizens and civil society organizations
  • Independent international digital rights organizations
  • UN and global multilateral organizations
  • Governmental and other sources

How powerful is Facebook’s ‘Supreme Court’ for speech?

Date: May 12, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Facebook has appointed twenty people from around the world to serve on what will effectively be the social media network’s “Supreme Court” for speech, issuing rulings on what kind of posts will be allowed and what should be taken down.

Pakistan and other South Asian states should allow free flow of information

Date: May 28, 2020 – Source: The News

Human Rights Watch and 47 other organizations have urged the World Health Organization to press governments of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar to restore internet facilities across the region.

SECTION 3: Digital rights violations and protections

  • Citizens and netizens – including case studies
  • Media, journalists and other information practitioners
  • Online free speech
  • Online access to information
  • Privacy violations
  • Data protection
  • Surveillance
  • Misinformation / disinformation / fake news
  • Cybercrime

Working digitally from home and employee digital rights

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: Dawn

It is stressed that the government needs to support employers by enabling safe internet access, and by laying foundation for modern labor laws that provide a safe environment for individuals working from home.

Pandemic brings concerns for data protection and privacy

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: The News

There is a growing concern in Pakistan that emergency measures during the pandemic may become a new normal as authorities continues to infringe upon the rights to privacy, information, data protection and freedom of association.

Cybercrime registers sharp decline amid lockdown

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source 1: Express Tribune, Source 2: The News

Measures taken by the Federal Investigation Agency during the lockdown have resulted in the decline of cybercrime cases — including financial crimes – across the country.

Personal data of Corona Relief Tiger Force volunteers circulating online

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Personal data of thousands of volunteers who reportedly registered for the Corona Relief Tiger Force has been illegally circulated online.

Personal data protection as a rights issue

Date: May 10, 2020 – Source: The News

The Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication has once again revealed its intentions to establish a legal framework to protect personal data privacy and allowing citizens, among others, the right to access their data from the authorities.

Data protection bill

Date: May 10, 2020 – Source: Dawn

It is important to explore the strengths of the Personal Data Protection Bill, as there are some major issues with the clauses, some critical provisions that are missing in the current draft, the significance of its timing, and the consultation process it must go through.

Online speech and accountability of social media firms

Date: May 11, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Over the last two decades, accountability of private social media companies has emerged as one of the defining, and most divisive, issue of our times.

Experts call for access to open scientific data

Date: May 12, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Experts, during a seminar, have called for setting up an open science data platform for evidence-based policy formulation to tackle the Covid-19 pandemic.

Pakistan among countries with most content removal requests on Facebook

Date: May 13, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Of the 15,826 content restrictions made by Facebook globally during July-December 2019, Russia, Pakistan and Mexico accounted for almost half of global content restrictions, according to Facebook’s transparency report.

Child digital pornography racketeer released on bail

Date: May 15, 2020 – Source: Dawn

The Lahore High Court has suspended sentence of a man convicted for being part of an international nexus of child pornographers and released him on bail.

Twitter inaccessibility for hours in Pakistan left users confused

Date: May 18, 2020 – Source: Digital Rights Monitor

On May 17, Pakistanis were barred from accessing Twitter for hours, a social media platform that empowers the citizens of Pakistan in voicing their concerns, and to reach out to the authorities.

Outage in Pakistan not from company’s end, says Twitter

Date: May 19, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Twitter has said that the disruption to services in Pakistan was not caused from their end. It said the company had so far not seen any indications of an outage on its server.

Evidence of Twitter, Periscope and Zoom restrictions in Pakistan

Date: May 20, 2020 – Source: Digital Rights Foundation

Global internet data observatories have confirmed that social interaction platforms such as Twitter, Periscope and Zoom were restricted on multiple internet providers in Pakistan on May 17.

Away with the online rules

Date: May 23, 2020 – Source: Dawn

The Citizens Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020 transgress the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act 2016, violate court judgements, infringe on fundamental rights and, run contrary to international best practices.

Fact Check: Picture used in media was old but the Prime Minister was in Nathiagali

Date: May 27, 2020 – Source: The News

While the Prime Minister spent time on Eid in Nathiagali, an old image was circulated on social media with users speculating about his whereabouts.

Sharing victims’ personal details violate their right to privacy

Date: May 28, 2020 – Source: Digital Rights Monitor

The disregard of privacy of victims indicates that right to privacy of vulnerable individuals cannot be respected in local context. In the past, infringement of right to privacy has resulted in women losing their lives to so-called honor killing which remains a prevalent practice to this day in Pakistan.

Pakistan People’s Party moves FIA Cyber Wing against woman who slurs Benazir Bhutto on Twitter

Date: May 29, 2020 – Source: The News

The Pakistan People’s Party has filed a complaint with the Cyber Crime Wing of Federal Investigation Agency against Cynthia D Richie for posting derogatory remarks about Benazir Bhutto on Twitter.

Battling the Covid-19 infodemic

Date: May 31, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Fake news has existed on social media much before the coronavirus pandemic. However, people can be part of controlling the spread of misinformation by resisting the urge to forward unverified information to others.

Maryam Nawaz lashes out at critics over viral picture of Nawaz Sharif

Date: May 31, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Commenting on Nawaz Sharif’s latest London picture that has gone viral on the social media, Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Vice President Maryam Nawaz observed that the purpose of uploading the snapshot was defamation and not promotion.

First Information Report lodged against American blogger

Date: May 31, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The Pakistan Peoples Party has filed an FIR against Cynthia D Ritchie, a US blogger for her alleged hateful comments against late Benazir Bhutto.

SECTION 4: Digitalization

  • Digitalization in governance sectors / e-governance
  • Digitalization in social and development sectors
  • Digitalization in business and commercial sectors

International Islamic University Islamabad to begin online classes

Date: May 1, 2020 – Source 1: Express Tribune, Source 2: The News, Source 3: Dawn

The International Islamic University Islamabad has directed all its faculties to begin online academic activities due to lockdown.

Islamabad residents laud tele school project

Date: May 1, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The government’s tele school channel is being lauded by people from all walks of life in the federal capital.

Senate session held via video link

Date: May 1, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

An informal session of the Senate deliberated on the situation occurring due to the coronavirus pandemic, problems of the people, and other issues.

Pakistan urges International Labor Organization to convene virtual session

Date: May 2, 2020 – Source: The News

Pakistan has urged the International Labor Organization to convene a virtual session of its member states to evolve a comprehensive strategy for betterment of the laborer community in the post-coronavirus world.

Lawmakers’ dilemma over virtual parliamentary session

Date: May 2, 2020 – Source: Dawn

The government appears to have failed in convincing opposition lawmakers to back its proposal for holding a virtual session of parliament.

Over 5,000 people at Covid risk identified by digital surveillance system

Date: May 2, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Over 5,000 individuals at risk of contracting Covid-19 from across the country have been identified by the government’s digital surveillance system.

Prime Minister launches web portal to assist jobless

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source 1: Express Tribune, Source 2: The News

Prime Minister Imran Khan has launched a web portal to financially support eligible individuals unemployed due to Covid-19 pandemic.

Virtual discussion among experts opposes changes to 18th Amendment

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Participants of an online discussion on the emerging controversy on the 18th Amendment in Pakistan’s constitution termed the statements of some politicians as undue fiddling with national consensus.

Local government to introduce application to help citizens report birth online

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The Punjab Local Government and Community Development Department is in the process of introducing a mobile as well as a desktop application, to enable citizens of Punjab to obtain e-birth and death certificate.

High telecommunication taxes hindering digitalization

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The mobile phone services sector has urged the government to rethink mobile taxation during Covid-19 outbreak to avoid hindering digitalization potential of Pakistan.

Biometric system blamed for Covid-19 spread

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Sindh government has criticized the federal government’s use of biometric registration as a probable cause of surge in Covid-19 spread.

Application makes calling doctor at home easier

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: Dawn

FindMyDoctor, a Karachi-based health startup, is providing healthcare assistance to citizens at their homes during restrictions placed on movement to counter spread of Covid-19.

Virtual media appears poised to dominate other mediums

Date: May 3, 2020 – Source: The News

Virtual media remains the only fully functioning medium of information exchange after the outbreak and has the potential to leave other mediums ineffective.

Higher telecom taxes slowing down digitalization in Pakistan

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source: Technology Times

There are a number of consumer taxes levied on mobile services, which the telecom industry has recommended to be rationalized and abolished to speed up the pace of digitalization in Pakistan.

3D printers – policy needed to remove needless restrictions

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Pakistan has rather restrictive policies for the import of 3D printers on the pretext of threats to national security.

Nomad Gallery online exhibition

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source: Dawn

The work of Ahmed Habib has been featured in an online solo exhibition by the Nomad Gallery.

Pakistan Muslim League-N holds regular online party meetings

Date: May 4, 2020 – Source: The News

Pakistan Muslim League-N has been holding regular online party meetings to discuss political developments amidst lockdown.

Iran, Pakistan hold virtual meeting for cooperation

Date: May 5, 2020 – Source: The News

A video conference of health ministers of Iran and Pakistan was held with the aim to strengthen cooperation to overcome the Covid-19 pandemic.

Chinese firm to launce e-commerce platform in Pakistan

Date: May 5, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The government and Chinese digital firm Timesaco have agreed to work on a shared goal of launching an e-commerce platform in Pakistan.

Federal Minister renews call for virtual parliament session

Date: May 5, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Science and Technology Minister Fawad Chaudhry has reiterated his call for convening a parliament session via video link to discuss national issues amidst nationwide lockdown.

Prime Minister’s Special Assistant lays emphasis on simplifying i-voting

Date: May 5, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Special Assistant to the Prime Minister on Overseas Pakistanis Zulfi Bukhari has laid emphasis on simplifying internet voting (i-voting) registration process for Pakistani expatriates.

Ministry officials meet with Google, other industry leaders to discuss coding skills program

Date: May 5, 2020 – Source: Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication

Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication officials had a detailed meeting with Google, Telecom Foundation, Tech Valley Pak and Virtual University to discuss Pakistan’s first national coding skills program.

Ministry of Information Technology urges digital coordination to minimize Covid-19 impact

Date: May 8, 2020 – Source: Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication

Federal Secretary Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication Shoaib Ahmad Siddiqui has directed the management of Pakistan Software Export Board to ensure close coordination with the information technology industry to minimize the impact of Covid-19 pandemic.

Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa reduces digital services tax

Date: May 9, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

For the promotion of Information Technology sector and digitalization, the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa government has announced reduction in provincial digital services tax.

Small businesses use online platforms to sell products

Date: May 9, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Small businesses are adopting online platforms for selling their products as demand for essential and general goods is on the rise in Ramazan because consumers prepare for the Eid amid a nationwide lockdown to combat the coronavirus outbreak.

National Highway Authority to enhance revenue through digitizing database

Date: May 11, 2020 – Source: The News

To enhance revenue, the National Highway Authority has initiated a project of Geographic Information System Survey and development of a geo-database of its entire network located throughout the country.

Government to impose smart lockdown via use of technology to trace Covid-19 patients

Date: May 11, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Federal Planning and Development Minister Asad Umar has said that the government would use technology to trace Covid-19 patients and identify virus hotspots in the country as part of its ‘smart lockdown’ strategy.

Bureaucracy to keep using video link despite lockdown ease

Date: May 11, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

As the government has extended the lockdown to curb the spread of coronavirus, the bureaucracy in Punjab will continue to be run through video link.

YouTube provides $5 million advertisement grants to Pakistan

Date: May 10, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

YouTube has announced to provide $5 million to Pakistan in advertisement grants to help the government share information about preventing spread of Covid-19 pandemic.

Real-time project monitoring system being developed in federal capital

Date: May 12, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Officials of the Capital Development Authority have suggested that the body is in the process of developing a new project management system that will enable its administration to monitor all ongoing development projects in the federal capital.

Digital Education: The foundation of digital Pakistan

Date: May 13, 2020 – Source: Academia Magazine

Digital entrepreneurs and small business owners should be provided with grants to be able to innovate. Researchers and academics working in this discipline should also be provided with additional support to pave the way for this digital transformation in Pakistan.

Higher Education Commission pressurizes universities to start online classes

Date: May 13, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has started employing efforts to start online education in universities across the country without considering the ground realities and ignoring the absence of a proper LMS (Learning Management System) infrastructure in varsities.

Missed opportunity of digital session of parliament

Date: May 13, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Unlike the British House of Commons, Pakistan’s elected representatives have rejected a proposal to organize a virtual session, citing constitutional and technological reasons.

Financial woes of mobility and technology startups worsen

Date: May 13, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Despite the easing in lockdown, tech-enabled mobility startups operating in the country continue to have their services shut, yielding significant financial losses to them.

Police use e-technology to address issues

Date: May 14, 2020 – Source 1: The News, Source 2: Express Tribune

To ensure social distancing is followed by the community members and police itself, Islamabad police is organizing e-courts to listen the complaints of the people and resolve them on priority basis.

Baltistan varsity announces online exam policy

Date: May 14, 2020 – Source: Dawn

The University of Baltistan has announced its online examination and assessment policy after completion of its ongoing online distance education program.

Fatimah Jinnah Women University offers online counseling services

Date: May 14, 2020 – Source: The News

Counseling and Wellness Centre at Fatima Jinnah Women University has initiated online counseling services for the students, faculty, staff and general population.

Telecom industry asks government to withdraw advance withholding tax

Date: May 14, 2020 – Source: The News

The telecom industry has asked the government to do away with advance withholding tax charged from all subscribers, and to harmonize general sales tax on voice calls and bring it down at 16 percent in the next budget.

Chinese help sought in Information Technology sector

Date: May 14, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Federal Minister for Information Technology and Telecommunication Aminul Haq has sought help from China to train Pakistani youth in information technology skills by starting exchange programs between the two countries.

Opposition claims Balochistan government is being run through social media applications

Date: May 15, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Leaders of opposition parties have alleged that the provincial coalition government in Balochistan has miserably failed to take steps to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic and its affairs are being run through social media applications.

Sindh University to commence online classes

Date: May 15, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The Sindh University will commence online classes after academic activities were interrupted for almost three months due to the ongoing pandemic.

Actor-producer to create digital content for children

Date: May 15, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Veteran actor and producer Khaled Anam has launched a YouTube channel to fulfill his life-long ambition to create kids’ content with local sensibilities.

Competition Commission of Pakistan launches online merger and acquisition application system

Date: May 15, 2020 – Source: The News

To facilitate the local and foreign investors intending to invest in Pakistan through mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures amid the Covid-19 situation, the Competition Commission of Pakistan has launched an Online Merger and Acquisition Application filing system.

The need for Pakistan’s digitalization policy

Date: May 18, 2020 – Source 1: The Nation, Source 2: Modern Diplomacy

The government has taken up the task to digitalize the entire country and to create an e-governance system to bring down corruption, ensure accountability process and augment productivity in the country.

Federal Minister launches two-way SMS system for improved tele school communication

Date: May 18, 2020 – Source: Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training

Shafqat Mahmood, Federal Minister for Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, launched a two-way SMS system for tele school service to improve communication with the public.

Online Eid sales jump from 2% to 20%

Date: May 19, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The share of online sales before Eid has jumped from 2% to 20% with roaring business particularly in the federal and provincial capitals.

One million trainings imparted to youth in freelancing

Date: May 20, 2020 – Source: Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication

One million trainings have been imparted to youth in freelancing under the National Level Training Program, DigiSkills, launched by Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication through the Ignite National Technology Fund.

Government launches telehealth portal

Date: May 21, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The service will help people from across the country contact doctors via WhatsApp – a mobile application – for free. It has been launched with an aim to lower down the burden on front line healthcare workers with the help of technology.

Social media use helps in distant learning

Date: May 21, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The education sector needs to focus on enhancing the distance learning experience with the positive use of social media. This was stressed by speakers during a virtual, international conference organized by the International Islamic University Islamabad.

E-commerce policy sought from government

Date: May 22, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

As businesses become digital and refocus towards e-commerce to keep trading as stores remained shut, small and medium enterprises in the country have sought an e-commerce policy from the government.

Mobile phone manufacturing policy approved

Date: May 22, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

The federal government has approved the first mobile manufacturing policy aimed at encouraging local production to counter the security threat emanating from handsets being manufactured in India.

Allama Iqbal Open University to hold online workshops

Date: May 22, 2020 – Source: The News

Allama Iqbal Open University has decided to hold virtual academic workshops of its post-graduate programs for its spring semester 2020.

Challenges to online education coming to the fore

Date: May 22, 2020 – Source: Dawn

While for some students with disabilities, a digital classroom can reduce movement, transport and access to barriers often found in the physical world, for others, the online learning experience presents new challenges that can only be countered through cooperation between the student and institution.

Think tank mulls digital accounts

Date: May 27, 2020 – Source 1: Express Tribune, Source 2: The News

During a special meeting of a think tank formed by Prime Minister Imran Khan, Adviser to Prime Minister on Finance Abdul Hafeez Shaikh has stressed the need for undertaking demand trials in the pursuit of developing a target digital market to improve liquidity and lending.

E-commerce in lurch: Traders estimate 70 percent Eid sales lost to corona aftermath

Date: May 27, 2020 – Source: The News

Traders have expressed dismay at the estimated loss of digital sales during Eid season due to the aftermath of Covid-19 pandemic.

Increasing number of shoppers going online

Date: May 27, 2020 – Source: Dawn

Marketplaces as well as online stores of major retail brands have reported an uptick in demand since the lockdown, which has further accelerated owing to the Eid factor.

Most calls to e-volunteer helpline about Covid-19

Date: May 28, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Less than half the calls made over the past two months to an emergency helpline set up by the chief minister were about the novel coronavirus pandemic alone.

Online sales a vital business mode

Date: May 28, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

While offline sales in Pakistan have been seriously affected due to the outbreak of Covid-19, online sales have been developing rapidly and are now a vital source of revenue for businesses.

Pakistan National Council of Arts online Eid Milan rings together celebrities

Date: May 29, 2020 – Source: Express Tribune

Pakistan National Council of Arts invited various Pakistani celebrities for an online meet-up through video calls for its program titled ‘Eid Gup Shup’ for art lovers.

International Islamic University Islamabad to commence online classes from June

Date: May 31, 2020 – Source: The News

The International Islamic University has announced it will commence online classes from June to resume academic activities hampered by restrictions during lockdown.

The online class

Date: May 31, 2020 – Source: The News

Unable to ensure equal access to classes and materials for a diverse student body, several universities in Lahore are struggling with online readiness during Covid-19.

A startup digitizing the supply chain network

Date: May 31, 2020 – Source: Dawn

SalesFlo is a Karachi-based startup that offers a digital sales and distribution management platform to help streamline the flow of consumer goods.

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OBJECTIVES: This series of monthly report aims to:

  • Track developments revolving around the framework of digitalization in Pakistan including policy and advocacy on digital rights, policy enforcements and digital rights violations, covering viewpoints of government, civil society, human rights community including digital rights campaigners, media, citizen journalists and other information practitioners, and regulators of electronic media, internet and telecom sectors, and netizens.
  • Monitor the interface between digital rights and Pakistan’s overall legal framework and how developments around them impact freedom of expression and access to information online as well as diversity and pluralism in Pakistan’s digital landscape, cyberspace and internet domains.
  • Follow developments around the themes of digital rights, freedom of expression, access to information, privacy, surveillance, data protection, access to internet services, telecom policies, etc.

INFORMATION SOURCES: This report monitors, among others, the following sources of information:

  • Government: Federal and provincial cabinets
  • Ministries: Related ministries, including Information and Broadcasting, Information Technology (IT) and Telecom, Human Rights, Science and Technology, Commerce and Industry, etc.
  • Legislatures: Senate, National Assembly, provincial assemblies, relevant standing committees
  • Regulators: Pakistan telecommunications Authority (PTA), Pakistan Electronic Media regulatory Authority (PEMRA), Press Council of Pakistan (PPC), State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), etc.
  • Global organizations: UN/Unesco, International Media Support (IMS), Reporters Without Borders (RSF), International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), Amnesty International (AI), Human Rights Watch (HRW), etc.
  • National organizations: Digital Rights Foundation (DRF), BoloBhi, Media Matters for Democracy (MMFD), Institute for Research, Advocacy and Development (IRADA), Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP), etc.
  • Media: Dawn, The News, Express Tribune, The Nation, Pakistan Today, The Friday Times, etc.
  • Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, etc.
  • Local networks: Journalists Safety Hubs Network, Alliance on Diversity & Pluralism in Media, etc.
  • Research groups: Gallup Pakistan, IPSOS Pakistan, etc.

 

 

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